Teaching Physical Education for Learning, 7th edition

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Classroom physical activity and strategies to reduce sedentary time in the school setting hold promise for increasing overall physical activity among children and adolescents, yet isolating the impact of these strategies is complex, and they are often met with resistance from key stakeholders. With respect to recess, its use to increase physical activity is a nationally recommended strategy, and there is evidence that participating in recess can increase physical activity and improve classroom behavior. However, implementation of recess across school districts and states is not currently at a sufficient level to increase physical activity.

Effective and promising strategies beyond the school day include after-school programming and sports, as well as active transport to and from school. After-school programming and participation in sports are important physical activity opportunities in the school setting, but implementation of and access to these opportunities vary greatly. Moreover, formal policies adopting physical activity standards for after-school programs are needed.

Finally, evidence shows that children who walk or bike to school are more. Successful active transport interventions address policy and infrastructure barriers. Also associated with the school environment are agreements between schools and communities to share facilities as places to be physically active. Although this is a relatively new research topic, these joint-use agreements can be a way to give youth additional opportunities for physical activity outside of school.

Further research is needed on utilization of facilities resulting from such agreements and their impact on physical activity. Recommendation 3: Because physical education is foundational for lifelong health and learning, the U. Department of Education should designate physical education as a core subject.

Physical education in school is the only sure opportunity for all school-aged students to access health-enhancing physical activity and the only school subject area that provides education to ensure that students develop the knowledge, skills, and motivation to engage in health-enhancing physical activity for life.

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Yet states vary greatly in their mandates with respect to time allocated for and access to physical education. As stated previously, 44 percent of school administrators report having cut significant time from physical education and recess to increase time devoted to reading and mathematics in response to the No Child Left Behind Act. Currently, despite growing concern about the negative consequences of physical inactivity, physical education is not considered or treated as a core subject.

Several national studies and reports have pointed to the importance of implementing state laws and regulations mandating both time requirements for physical education and monitoring of compliance with those requirements. Although a number of national governmental, nongovernmental, private industry, and public health organizations and agencies have offered specific recommendations for the number of days and minutes per day of physical education, no policy that is consistent from state to state has emerged.

If treated as a core academic subject, physical education would receive much-needed resources and attention, which would enhance its overall quality in terms of content offerings, instruction, and accountability. Enactment of this recommendation would also likely result in downstream accountability that would assist in policy implementation. Recommendation 4: Education and public health agencies at all government levels federal, state, and local should develop and systematically deploy data systems to monitor policies and behaviors pertaining to physical activity and physical education in the school setting so as to provide a foundation for policy and program planning, development, implementation, and assessment.

The intent of this recommendation is to give citizens and officials concerned with the education of children in the United States—including parents and teachers as well as education and public health officials at the local, state, and federal levels—the information they need to make decisions about future actions. Principals, teachers, and parents who know that regular vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activity is an essential part of the health and potentially the academic performance of students and who have adopted a whole-of-school approach to physical activity will want and need this information.

This information also is important to support the development of strategies for accountability for strengthening physical activity and physical education in schools. Aside from a few good one-time surveys of physical activity during physical education classes, remarkably little information is available on the physical activity behaviors of students during school hours or school-related activities. Even the best public health monitoring systems do not collect this information. The few existing monitoring systems for school-related physical activity behaviors need to be augmented.

Information is needed not only on the amount of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity in which youth are engaged but also on its distribution across segments of the school day i. Existing national surveys are not designed to provide local or even state estimates of these student behaviors. State departments of education, local school districts, and state and local health departments will need to collaborate to provide adequate monitoring.

Dynamic Physical Education for Secondary School Students, 8th Edition

Also needed is augmented monitoring of physical activity— related guidelines, policies, and practices at the federal, state, and local levels. Evidence is emerging that laws and policies at the state and district levels have not just potential but actual influence on the physical activity behaviors of large numbers of children and adolescents. Also emerging is evidence of a gap between the intent and implementation of policies, so that their final impact is commonly less, sometimes appreciably so, than expected.

While the factors that create an effective policy are still being elucidated, policies that entail required reporting of outcomes, provision of adequate funding, and easing of competing priorities appear to be more likely to be implemented and more effective. Further evaluation of physical activity and physical education policies is needed to fully understand their impact in changing health behavior. Monitoring of state and district laws and policies has improved over the past decade.


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In general, the number of states and districts with laws and policies pertaining to physical education has increased, although many such policies remain weak. For example, most states and districts have policies regarding physical education, but few require that it be provided daily or for a minimum number of minutes per week.

ISBN - Teaching Physical Education for Learning 7th Edition Direct Textbook

Those that do have such requirements rarely have an accountability system in place. Although some comprehensive national guidelines exist, more are needed to define quality standards for policies on school-based physical activity and to create more uniform programs and practices across states, school districts, and ultimately schools.

Recommendation 5: Colleges and universities and continuing education programs should provide preservice training and ongoing professional development opportunities for K classroom and physical education teachers to enable them to embrace and promote physical activity across the curriculum. Teaching physical education also requires substantial knowledge and skill in pedagogy, the science and art of teaching, which is required for any subject. In addition, because health is associated with academic performance, priority should be given to educating both classroom and physical education teachers about the importance of physical activity for the present and future physical and mental health of children.

The current wave of effort to curb childhood physical inactivity has begun to influence teacher education programs. Data appear to suggest that training programs for physical education teachers are beginning to evolve from a traditionally sport- and skill-centered model to a more comprehensive physical activity— and health-centered model. However, education programs for physical education teachers are facing a dramatic decrease in the number of kinesiology doctoral programs offering training to future teacher educators, in the number of doctoral students receiving this training, and in the number of professors including part-time offering the training.

Additional data suggest a shortage of educators in higher education institutions equipped to train future physical education teachers.

With unfilled positions, these teacher education programs are subject to assuming a marginal status in higher education and even to being eliminated. Professional development—including credit and noncredit courses, classroom and online venues, workshops, seminars, teleconferences, and webinars—improves classroom instruction and student achievement, and data suggest a strong link among professional development, teacher learning and practice, and student achievement.

The most impactful statement of government policy on the preparation and professional development of teachers was the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Although Title I of the act places highly qualified teachers in the classroom, Title II addresses the same goal by funding professional development for teachers.

This professional development should be extended to include physical education instructors as well. Recommendation 6: Federal, state, district, and local education administrators should ensure that programs and policies at all levels address existing disparities in physical activity and that all students at all schools have equal access to appropriate facilities and opportunities for physical activity and quality physical education.

All children should engage in physical education and meet the recommendation of at least 60 minutes per day of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity regardless of their region, school attended, grade level, or. As stated at the beginning of this Summary, an extensive scientific literature demonstrates that regular physical activity promotes growth and development in children and adolescents and has multiple benefits for physical, mental, and cognitive health. These research needs are covered in greater detail throughout the report and especially in the final chapter.

They include topics such as. Physical inactivity is a key determinant of health across the lifespan. A lack of activity increases the risk of heart disease, colon and breast cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoporosis, anxiety and depression and others diseases. Emerging literature has suggested that in terms of mortality, the global population health burden of physical inactivity approaches that of cigarette smoking.

The prevalence and substantial disease risk associated with physical inactivity has been described as a pandemic. The prevalence, health impact, and evidence of changeability all have resulted in calls for action to increase physical activity across the lifespan. In response to the need to find ways to make physical activity a health priority for youth, the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Physical Activity and Physical Education in the School Environment was formed. Its purpose was to review the current status of physical activity and physical education in the school environment, including before, during, and after school, and examine the influences of physical activity and physical education on the short and long term physical, cognitive and brain, and psychosocial health and development of children and adolescents.

Educating the Student Body makes recommendations about approaches for strengthening and improving programs and policies for physical activity and physical education in the school environment. This report lays out a set of guiding principles to guide its work on these tasks. These included: recognizing the benefits of instilling life-long physical activity habits in children; the value of using systems thinking in improving physical activity and physical education in the school environment; the recognition of current disparities in opportunities and the need to achieve equity in physical activity and physical education; the importance of considering all types of school environments; the need to take into consideration the diversity of students as recommendations are developed.

This report will be of interest to local and national policymakers, school officials, teachers, and the education community, researchers, professional organizations, and parents interested in physical activity, physical education, and health for school-aged children and adolescents. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.